Trzebiatów (54 ° 03'26 "N 15 ° 16'43" E) is in the northern part of Zachodniopomorskie [West Pomerania] Province, in the northern part of the district of Gryfice, in the central part of the commune of Trzebiatów. The town is situated on the border of the Trzebiatów Coast and Gryfice Plains that belong to the macro-region of the Szczecin Embankment. Trzebiatów lies by the Rega and is located just 10 km from the Baltic Sea. The town is the place where three roads converge: the provincial road No. 102 connecting the town with Kołobrzeg (31 km) and with Rewal (19 km), the provincial road No. 103 through Cerkwica (12 km) to Świerzno (22 km), and the provincial road No. 109 to Mrzeżyno (10 km) and to Gryfice (18 km). The town has a railway station, through which the non-electrified railway line No. 402 from Goleniów to Kołobrzeg runs. The closest major seaports are located in Kołobrzeg and Dziwnów, and the nearest marina - in the port of Mrzeżyno, with which Trzebiatów is connected by the Rega. The nearest Szczecin-Goleniów airport is 67 km away from the town. Transport between neighbouring towns and Trzebiatów is provided mainly by coaches of large companies and private small buses.
A hiking and a bicycle trail pass through Trzebiatów. The red Seaside Trail runs through the town from the west side, from Rewal, along the provincial road No. 102. It passes through the Old Town, turns on the market square towards the stone bridge over the Rega, where it continues in the direction of Mrzeżyno along the provincial road No. 109. The international R-10 bicycle trail leads also through the town and along the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. The trail enters the town from the south-western side, from Sadlenko, along the provincial road No. 103. It then goes through the whole II Pułku Ułanów Street, Rynek, Wojska Polskiego Street, Zjednoczenia Square, the bridge over the Młynówka and the Rega, then turns left and into the provincial road No. 109 to Nowielice and northwards.
Trzebiatów is a town in north-western Poland, in Zachodniopomorskie [West Pomerania] Province, in the district of Gryfice, is the seat of the urban-rural commune of Trzebiatów. It lies on the Szczecin Embankment, by the Rega, approx. 8 km from the Baltic Sea. The town is the administrative seat of the commune of Trzebiatów. According to data as of 1st January 2009, the town's area is 10,25 km².
The name of the town has certainly Slavic origin, but there are three hypotheses as to its exact etymology. The first one assumes that the Slavic name of the town stems from the word "trzebież" ['clearing'], which would link it with the surrounding dense forests felling in the Middle Ages. The other (more likely) one, supported by archaeological research, indicates that the name of the town was derived from the word 'trebiti', which meant 'to sacrifice' or from the word 'trebiste', which meant 'the altar'. The two names would, therefore, refer to making sacrifice in local pagan shrines existing near Trzebiatów (Białoboki) until the twelfth century. The third hypothesis, in turn, refers to the patronymic name of Trzebiesław, Trzebiemir or Trzebiata. The name of the town evolved in the period of German colonisation, as evidenced by the records in Latin. Once these areas had been fully Germanised, the name of Treptow was formed. In Prussian times the official name of the town was Treptow an der Rega (to distinguish it from Treptow in Brandenburg, incorporated into Berlin in 1920). After World War II Polish authorities referred to the original name of the Slavic settlement and gave it its current name of Trzebiatów.
The coat of arms of Trzebiatów is the Spanish escutcheon depicting a red Pomeranian griffin on a silver field, looking to the right side and holding a golden shield with a green trefoil in its claws. A gold even-sided cross of Premonstratensians can be seen under the shield. There is a vertical St. Peter's key turned upside down behind the griffin.
The logo, in turn, shows the white outline of an elephant against a pattern of four irregular colour squares (red, purple, green, orange), which make a wholeness, on a white background. The inspiration for the logo is the sgraffito from 1639 depicting the image of the cow elephant Hansken (identical to the one in Rembrandt's drawing entitled 'Adam and Eve'), made by a unique technique, placed on the wall of the house No. 26 at the Market Square in Trzebiatów.
The Trzebiatów bugle call is played mechanically four times a day (9 a.m., 12 a.m., 3 p.m. and 6 p.m.) from the tower of the Town Hall. The bugle call was composed to commemorate the 700th anniversary of Trzebiatów in 1977.
The history of Trzebiatów dates back to the ninth century, when a fortified Slavic settlement and a castle commune were there. On the basis of archaeological research, it was found that the town was the then place of worship of Perun. According to late medieval sources, there was a pagan temple of the deity called the white god (god of the sun) in the vicinity of Trzebiatów in the tenth century in the suburb of Białoboki. The existence of such a deity has not been confirmed, though.
The first recorded mention of the town is in the act of 1170 when the Pomeranian Duke Casimir I handed over 11 villages and the patronage over the church in Trzebiatów, located in nearby Białoboki, to the Norbertines, who came from the Monastery of the Holy Trinity in Lund, Sweden. They established a male monastery in Białoboki. Trzebiatów became a dower of Duchess Anastasia, the wife of the Duke of Pomerania Bogusław I. She founded St. Nicholas's Church and the Norbertine nunnery in the town. The development of the town as a trade centre on the shores of the Baltic Sea is dated back to the thirteenth century. Duke Barnim I, his son Bogusław and Thomas, the abbot of the Norbertine monastery granted civic rights to the town. This was associated with a number of privileges of an economic nature: the Regoujście port was incorporated into the town, the right of free navigation on the river Rega was granted and the right of building town walls were granted. The monks of Białoboki were to receive half of the proceeds of the mint and of urban revenue.
The town was granted the right to seal documents in red wax by Prince Bogusław IV in 1283 for taking part in the Battle of Stargard. Otto I and Warcisław IV took power in Trzebiatów in 1309. Since that time, the income of the town was not divided, but the princes had to pay handsomely for it. A secondary school, with a varied curriculum, was opened there in 1328. The civic rights, especially the right of navigation on the Rega, contributed not only to the development of the town, but also to a feud with nearby Gryfice. The conflict led to several wars that ended with a significant diminution of the importance of Trzebiatów. Over time, the town fell into decline and was only the centre of local life. Trzebiatów and Gryfice grew apart in the fourteenth century, and the former established greater cooperation with more and more dynamically developing Kołobrzeg. The town joined the Hanseatic League in 1416. 49 years later (in 1465) it was excluded from it, but it had become rich enough by the time by trading in herring, salt, beer, malt, onion and gingerbread. Then, Trzebiatów established broader business relationships with many Baltic cities including Copenhagen in Denmark and Gdańsk. It became the site of horse and cow fairs in 1571. Drapery also developed. The development of the town continued uninterrupted until the seventeenth century when, as a result of heavy storms and sand accumulation in the port of Regoujście, navigation on the Rega became impossible. It did not help either to dig a new channel and port in the vicinity of today's Mrzeżyno. At the same time arguments between Trzebiatów and Gryfice ended. Last goods to Trzebiatów were shipped in 1826. In the sixteenth century
Trzebiatów played an important role in the development of the Reformation, as a principal place of activity of John Bugenhagen. The estate parliament, better known as the parliament of Trzebiatów was held in December 1534 in the Holy Spirit's Chapel. During the meeting, Pomeranian princes decided to introduce the Reformation and the adoption of Lutheranism as the dominant religion in Pomerania. After the secularisation of church property, the estates of the monasteries in Trzebiatów became the property of the House of Griffins. They were the princes' widows' dower. They belonged to the Electors of Brandenburg in the seventeenth century.
During the Thirty Years' War in 1624 and 1627, the armies of both sides swept across the town. At the end of the conflict, tsarist troops captured and completely plundered Trzebiatów. After the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the town became a part of Brandenburg for almost one hundred years. The town was hit by a wave of fires in the seventeenth century. They destroyed the town almost completely. Mainly a town hall, the ducal court and a brickyard burnt down. In 1761 Trzebiatów was conquered by the Russian army, which occupied the Western Pomerania at that time. It became a Prussian garrison town after the liberation, until World War II. The town was owned by Frederick Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, between 1750 and 1790. His son's wife, Maria Anna née Czartoryska (the author of the first Polish romantic novel written by a woman - 'Malvina or the Heart's Intuition'), led to a cultural revival of the town. The former convent of the Norbertine nuns (it was a prince's castle from the mid-sixteenth century) was rebuilt in a classical style by Czartoryska's initiative. King Frederick I of Württembergwas was born there, his sister - the future wife of Czar Paul I, Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg- was also brought up there. Gen. Gebhard von Blücher, who fought in the Battle of Waterloo, managed the town between 1797 and 1811. The town was captured by Napoleon's army in 1807.
A school for young ladies, the aim of which was to promote education among women, was founded next to the Holy Spirit Chapel in 1824 from private contributions. After the reorganisation of education in Trzebiatów, the Johannes Bugenhagen Middle School was created. A gasworks was built and a gas network was launched in the town in 1864. The railway connection with Szczecin and Kołobrzeg, which significantly affected the socio-economic recovery of Trzebiatów, was established in 1882. New production facilities (a brewery, a slaughterhouse, a dairy, and a tannery), hotels and restaurants were erected. An agricultural school, one of the few such institutions in Pomerania, was established in Trzebiatów in 1899. The town became the seat of Felisch & Kirchheim in 1873. The company was involved in the production of silver tableware, which were delivered, among others, for the Swedish royal court. After the construction of the railway line to Kamień Pomorski and the expansion of the narrow gauge railway network (e.g. to Mrzeżyno, Rewal, Gryfice), Trzebiatów became a transportation hub, as well as commercial and administration centre for the surrounding villages and estates. The construction of the Provincial Mental Hospital was finished in 1900, whereas Dr. Evler's private clinic was opened in 1903. These institutions, together with the district hospital functioning in the town, provided full health care to the residents.
World War I brought renewed slack in the economy of the town. The post-war period was also marked by numerous difficulties associated with rampant hyperinflation in Germany. The authorities of Trzebiatów tried to limit the fall in the value of money by issuing its own emergency money, the so-called notgeld banknotes. The non-commissioned officer’s school, established in 1901, was transformed into a Pomeranian School of Police in 1921. The town was connected to the grid in the 1920s. A hydroelectric power plant was built in place of the burnt mill. As a result of the construction of a military unit in Mrzeżyno and the airport in Kamp, as well as the expansion of the garrison in Trzebiatów, unemployed residents found permanent employment. Intensive arable farming was undertaken around the town before World War II, and agricultural products were stored for the purpose of the approaching war. The seat of the Kreisleitung, or a district NSDAP cell, was located in Trzebiatów. Thus, the town took over some functions of a district from Gryfice.
The initial period of the Second World War did not have much impact on the lives of citizens and the functioning of the town. Soon, transports with student evacuees were coming from Herne and other centres of the Ruhr valley endangered by the Allied air raids. The first refugees from East Prussia appeared in the autumn of 1944. The citizens heard distant explosions in February 1945 and were aware of the front approaching, but they could not leave the town until the very last moment. Only offices, high-ranked party officials with their families, and a military hospital were evacuated. The order of immediate evacuation was announced at the beginning of March when Soviet soldiers were just a few kilometres before Trzebiatów. The German army left the barracks the day before. The town was left undefended. After capturing the town by the troops of the 1st Belorussian Front and the 1st Polish Army, the Russians committed the rapes, murders and incessant looting for several weeks. Private property was looted, equipment of plants and workshops was deported. Railway tracks were dismantled. The administration of the town was handed over to the Poles after two months. The town had about 300 Polish citizens in mid-1945, mostly demobilised soldiers of the 1st Warsaw Cavalry Brigade, who settled there and started families later on. As a result of the Potsdam Conference, the town and a part of Pomerania were incorporated into Poland.
The chequered urban arrangement of the Old Town is characteristic of Trzebiatów. Its entire area is registered as a monument. The variety of monuments has led to the fact that Trzebiatów is called Kazimierz of the North. The Old Town is located in the bend of the Młynówka and the Rega on distinct hill surrounded by walls, with the well-defined medieval arrangement of partially preserved brick ramparts (approx. 2.5 km long) surrounded by a moat. The spatial arrangement of Trzebiatów comprises 92 streets, a historic market and the four squares, i.e. Lipowy, Muzealny, Zjednoczenia, Zwycięstwa ones.
The most impressive monument in Trzebiatów is the Church of the Motherhood of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which is an example of Gothic architecture of the thirteenth century. Bells, one of which dates to the late fourteenth century, are placed on its tower (so high that it served as a lighthouse in the Middle Ages, despite the significant 10-kilometre distance between Trzebiatów and the Baltic Sea). It is worth climbing to the observation deck located at the height of 2/3 of the church tower because it offers a beautiful panorama of the countryside. The church serves as the Archdiocesan Marian Shrine of Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. An image of the crowned Madonna and Child from 1867 is placed there. The works also worth seeing include: tombstones (including Arnold Crampl's from 1382), an organ from 1848, and stained glass windows ordered to be built by King William I in 1867. The town has three historic chapels and a neo-Gothic Protestant church from the early twentieth century. Preserved remains of the town walls from the thirteenth century the Kaszana Tower from the late thirteenth and early fourteenth century are prominent monuments of urban architecture.
The town also has two neoclassical buildings. The first one is a prince's castle converted into a palace in the eighteenth century. At present, it houses the Regional Chamber, Lyonel Feininger Gallery and the Marie von Württemberg née Czartoryska Public Library. The library had the collection of 64 550 volumes in 2006. Another building representing classicism (albeit it contains baroque and Gothic elements such as three Gothic arcades on the western side) is the town hall of Trzebiatów. The small courtyard of the town hall, visible only when you enter the building (traces of the seventeenth-century gallows were discovered there) is quite interesting. A small tower with a four-faced clock and two clocks striking the hours and quarters is placed on the eastern side. Trzebiatów has a large number of historic buildings and houses. An interesting fact is that each of the houses has a different front finish. Other preserved monuments are: a mill, a granary, a hydroelectric power station, barracks, a railway station, a road bridge from 1905 built in the Art Nouveau style.
Trzebiatów was the theme of several works of art. The oldest image of the town is a drawing depicting a panorama of Trzebiatów by Eilhard Lubinus, which is located at the Map of the Great Duchy of Pomerania from 1618. Another preserved panoramas of Trzebiatów include drawings by Karl Friedrich Schinkel. They were ordered by Emperor Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia. So were the works of Peter Ludwig Lütke, a professor of landscape painting at the Academy in Berlin. He painted the idealised panorama of the town from the road leading from Kołobrzeg. Besides the town building, the painting shows also the management of the surrounding areas. Scenes from everyday life that reveal the material culture of the local inhabitants are shown in the suburbs. In the 1920s and the 1930s the town was the inspiration for Lyonel Feininger, an American painter of German origin, who was fascinated by it. He painted watercolours, drawings and sketches related, among other things, with the churches, the town hall, the Kaszana Tower, as well as the Old Town of Trzebiatów.
There are remains of a nineteenth-century municipal park (one of the oldest in Pomerania) called Królewski Gaj [the Royal Grove] in Trzebiatów. It was founded in 1843 by Colonel von Plehve, the commander of a lancer regiment. The tree stand consists of hornbeam and riparian species. It was proposed to declare 15 trees in the park as monuments in 2004. Trzebiatów has a total of 4 parks with an area of 26.9 ha, and 3 squares. The second park which should be mentioned is a historic park complex in Jaromin (a part of the former hospital park), which was probably founded in the suburbs of the town in 1899. There are 26 species of trees, 27 trees of which meet the requirements to be declared monumental trees.
The Trzebiatów Forest, which is one of the few large forest complexes, is adjacent to the eastern border of the town. The Trzebiatów Forest is a breeding area of two species of birds of prey, the red kite and lesser spotted eagle, which are under species and zone protection. In addition, the Trzebiatów Forest has large groupings of European tree frog and several stands of toad. The western outskirts of the town is a Site of Community Importance, namely the Trzebiatów-Kołobrzeg Seashore. Trzebiatów borders a Special Protection Area for birds called 'the Trzebiatów Coast'. A protective area was created within the town, where fishing and activities harmful to fish are prohibited from 1st May to 30th July and from 1st September to 15th February. The town is located in the Rega Valley covering diverse ecosystems. The Rega is also the ecological corridor of an importance more than at a regional level. The river is the way of the migration of several precious species of fish, e.g. sea trout, to the spawning grounds. The area of Trzebiatów and the slopes of the Rega Valley have natural habitats of Sub-Atlantic beech-oak-hornbeam forests in a poor Pomeranian form.
The town is a communal trade centre, where most of the shops and services are. In the town there are: elementary schools, middle schools, secondary and vocational schools, a Community Centre, a Public Library, a Garrison Club (housing a garrison library with the collection 24 thousand volumes), dozens of various retail and service outlets, a restaurant, a pub, a few small catering outlets, a guest house, a stadium and a sports arena. There are also: a plastic plant and a fish processing plant in Trzebiatów. A municipal market is located near the parish church. The town has a manufacturing plant making baths and motorboats, as well as a plant processing and preserving fish and fishery products. An electro-metal plant producing welded steel and aluminium constructions operates in Trzebiatów and suburban Mirosławice. There is a small factory producing wooden staircase and log houses on the outskirts of the town. A ready-mixed concrete and prefabricated elements works is located in the eastern part of Trzebiatów (Jaromin).
Trzebiatów is located on the coast, which means that some citizens are employed in holiday resorts at the seaside or run a seasonal business. The summer period is characterised by increased tourist traffic on the coast, hence the town is visited by tourists staying in seaside resorts.
Many attractive events await tourists coming to Trzebiatów. For example, there is the annual summer Trzebiatów Porridge Festival, which refers to the legend from the fifteenth century, in which one of the guardians of the walls dropped a bowl of hot porridge from the tower at night. It fell on the head of one of the citizens of Gryfice, who was preparing for the assault on Trzebiatów. The accident saved the town from an insidious attack. There are also the Trzebiatów Meetings of Cultures 'Neighbours', organised in the summer at the palace courtyard, with live bands, culinary competitions, demonstrations of old crafts and cultural exhibitions. Trzebiatów invites visitors not only during the holidays. The Feast of Otto of Bamberg takes place in September, during which workshops, presentations and cultural events related to the Western Pomerania take place. The Community Centre in Trzebiatów, in turn, organises a scientific seminar 'Trzebiatów - Pomeranian meetings' in October. This is an interdisciplinary project bringing together researchers, regionalists and enthusiasts who present results of research on the history, ethnography, archaeology, art and culture of not only Trzebiatów, but of the entire Western Pomerania. International Competition for Horse Fire Pumps is held in Trzebiatów, when teams compete with their own horse or portable fire pumps with a cart.
While resting in Trzebiatów, You should also visit the nearby Baltic Sea resort of Mrzeżyno (10 km from Trzebiatów) with clean wide, and in some places even wild, beaches. The main bathing area of Mrzeżyno has received an international seal of quality - the Blue Flag for the third time in a row. Magnificent coastal forests, rich in many valuable species of plants, stretch along the entire coastline. Picturesque forest trails are ideal for cycling. In the town there is a harbour for sea yachts and fishing boats, as well as a berth for pleasure boats. You can purchase flounder and turbots directly from fishing boats at the marina, or try the freshly prepared fish in many smokehouses and fish and chip shops. Pleasure boats, in turn, offer a unique experience for lovers of fishing tourism in the form of cod fishing trips.
While in the region, You should turn your attention also to Rogowo. The tourists staying there will find a wide and clean beach, fishing post, sports fields, a tennis court, spas and an aviation museum organised in a former hangar for hydroplanes. The flora of the area of Rogowo also seems interesting. Black pines of Mediterranean origin and special, growing up to 2 m, shrubs of Japanese rose, forming a natural windscreen for residential buildings, had already been planted before World War II.
Accommodation facilities such as local farm houses, a two-starred B&B and a nearby manor in Nowielice wait for tourists coming to the town. It is worth resting in the region also because of stud farm (the stable 'Pestka' in Mrzeżyno, the Stud Farm 'Nowielice') that let You spend time actively among nature and beautiful animals. Also, a ropes course (Mrzeżyno), the historic homestead (Gosław) and rafting encourage to recreation in Trzebiatów and the surrounding area. There are football, floorball and volleyball clubs in the town. Trzebiatów is the first town in the international cycling race 'the Baltic - Giant Mountains Tour', which is held every year in June. A small marathon The Trzebiatów Ten, which begins in Trzebiatów and ends in Mrzeżyno, is organised annually in June. The town is also on the route of Gryfland, a local cycling marathon, which takes place in June and on the provincial roads of the district of Gryfice.
A bi-weekly „Kulisy Trzebiatowskie” ['The Trzebiatów backstage'] and „Neu Gmina Trzebiatowska” ['New Commune of Trzebiatów'] are issued in the town. District newspapers such as "Gazeta Gryficka" ['The Gryfice Gazette'], "Panorama Gryficka" ['The Panorama of Gryfice'] and the monthly Local Government Information Bulletin „Kraina Regi” ['The Land of the Rega'] are available.
Trzebiatów is the town of Four Religions (Evangelical, Catholic, Orthodox and Greek Catholic ones). The ecumenical Meeting of Four Candles takes place there annually. Worshipers present their Christmas traditions during the evening. They meet at a common table, where there are dishes prepared by representatives of faiths. The tradition of the evening is the lightning of the four candles symbolising the four Christian churches to which the residents of Trzebiatów belong.
There is a military unit (MU No. 1879) in Trzebatów, where the 3rd Battalion of the 7th Pomeranian Coastal Defence Brigade stations. Earlier, the unit of the 36th Łużyce Mechanised Regiment stationed there, reorganised into the 36th Mechanised Brigade named after the Academic Legion.
4 non-public health care institutions were in the town in 2006, as well as two doctors had medical practice there. The nearest provincial hospitals are in Gryfice and Kołobrzeg. The town has its own ambulance team.
Among the honorary citizens of the town are, inter alia, Col. Ryszard Witwicki (a former commander of the military unit in Trzebiatów), Hans-Udo Vogler (a pastor), Gen. Stanisław Nałęcz-Komornicki (a Chancellor of the War Order of Virtuti Militari), Tadeusz Żukowski (a poet) Col. Karol Perłowski (a Polish Home Army soldier, code name "Łoś ['Moose']", a Warsaw insurgent), Janina Kochanowska, Ph.D. (an art historian, expert in the history of Western Pomerania). The well-known people born in Trzebiatów include e.g.: Jürgen Pavels (1568, a merchant and councillor of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck), Frederick I of Württemberg (1754, a prince, the first King of Württemberg), Louis of Württemberg (1756, a prince, the brother of Frederick), Ludwig Friedrich Kämtz (1801, a German physicist and meteorologist), Johann Gustav Droysen (1808, the creator of the Prussian Historical School, a student of Georg Hegel, a professor at the University of Berlin), Ferdinand von Arnim (1814, a German architect of the Classicist period), Peter Friedrich Arndt (1817, a German mathematician).